Thursday, September 11, 2014














Thursday, July 03, 2014

Why Learn New Testament Greek?

There are many reasons for learning New Testament or Koine Greek. Some people just don't have anything better to do with their time. Bored of TV sports, reality and game shows, and video games, they say to themselves, "Gee, I think I'll learn Greek." Now, I will grant you that this doesn't happen very often, and some of these people are institutionalized. The Nielsen ratings for New Testament Greek are also pretty low compared to Monday Night Football and Wheel of Fortune, the last time I checked.
Other people learn New Testament Greek in order to speak it conversationally. They are usually very disappointed to discover that it is a dead language. It used to be pretty popular around the time of Jesus. But now, not even Greeks speak it anymore, and New Testament Greeks are all dead. 
The friends and relatives of people who have learned New Testament Greek are amazed to find that Greek students often just stare at them blankly when they are asked to “say something in Greek.” This occasional problem can be solved, however, if the Greek student will memorize some simple sentence or phrase, such as, ᾽Εγώ ἑλλενίζω, σύ ἰδιώτε!, which translated means, “I am speaking Greek, you idiot!” (It may be better to leave the phrase untranslated.)                           .
We move closer to discovering the real reasons why people learn New Testament Greek if we observe the unusually high correlation between people who learn Koine Greek and people who go into some Christian ministry. When Americans were asked in a recent Gallup poll, "Do you know Koine Greek?," over 50% of those responding affirmatively were Christian ministers. The majority of the others were seminary drop-outs. Here are the complete results:
GALLUP: Do you know Koine Greek?

NO: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . .  20.0%
YES:  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1%
WHAT IS KOINE GREEK?: . . . . . . .79.9%
     Christian minister:                         51%
     Seminary dropout:                         29%    
     Retirees with nothing better to do: 10%  
     TV Evangelist:                                 5%                     
     Life burnout:                                    5%
These results are significant. They show that if you learn New Testament (Koine) Greek, you will be in the elite, not 1%, but in THE ELITEST .1%. Further, there are undoubtedly strong correlations between those in this group and their spiritual depth and heavenly reward. (The data is not yet available for these correlations.)

In short, these are the main reasons to learn New Testament Greek.

Tuesday, May 27, 2014

Instead of T.U.L.I.P.

In a recent Koinonia blog (, Pastor Jeremy Bouwma, cited, but did not recommend, a revision of the traditional Calvinist T.U.L.I.P called P.R.O.O.F. If this stuff interests you, check out the link above.

Let me offer my alternative to both of these, a version that emphasizes God's grace:

Instead of Total Depravity
     1. Sin - it affects all aspects of our humanity. We cannot turn to God without God’s saving GRACE.

Instead of Unconditional Election
     2. Salvation - it is entirely by God’s GRACE that we are saved and come to know God. We do not merit or earn salvation.

Instead of Limited Atonement
     3. Sacrifice - God in GRACE and mercy accepts the the death of Christ as a perfect and sufficient sacrifice for the sins of the whole world and for all humanity.

Instead of Irresistible Grace
     4. Spirit - by God’s GRACE, the Holy Spirit creates in us the desire and moves us to accept God’s forgiving love in Christ.

Instead of Perseverance of Saints
     5. Steadfastness - God’s GRACE holds us fast and will never let us go. We will be loved and kept secure in Christ unto the end.

Saturday, November 23, 2013

The Character of God in Genesis

“The Lord is merciful and gracious, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love” (Ps. 103:8). The love of God is universal, persistent, ever present, and fiercely determined to set things right.

I have read carefully through the entire Bible again and again, looking for all the relevant passages on the universal love of God. The survey you are about to read contains almost every place in the Bible on the love, kindness, pity, and compassion of God. I was especially interested in those passages in which God’s concern for all people is emphasized. I did not include many passages in which people are calling out to God to be gracious or merciful, although even those show an expectation, grounded in God’s experienced character, that God will, in fact, be so. We begin our survey with Genesis.

I. The Old Testament
A. Genesis

Genesis 1-11
The Bible begins with the familiar words, “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth” (1:1, TNIV) . It begins with God’s bringing into being all things and God’s concern for and appreciation of all things. God wants light and order, instead of darkness and chaos (1:1-4). God loves the land and the sky and the waters. God loves all the creatures God made, including us humans, whom God created in God’s own likeness, and to whom he gave special responsibility to care for all the natural world that God had made. “God saw everything that he had made, and indeed, it was very good” (1:31).

God placed humans in the garden of the earth he had made and gave it to us all, with all its beauty and provision for our needs, even our need for companionship and love, as a benefit of God’s love for us (2:7-9, 18-25). We are to till and keep God’s garden (2:15). We are meant to live in harmony with God and to follow his way (2:16-17).

But we turned inexplicably against God, rejecting God’s way, not trusting God’s love. We followed “the devices and desires of our own hearts.” We believed lies about God that came from evil 3:4-5). We did what was right in our own eyes, for our own benefit, apart from God and God’s way (3:6). And so we hide from the one who made us and loves us. We began to be afraid of God (3:8-10). We began to blame everyone else for our sense of alienation and guilt (3:12-13).

But God keeps on loving us and makes provision for us even after we turn away from God and his way. God keeps us from harming ourselves further and clothes us in God’s care (3:21-23).

Our rebellion against God’s way of love and fellowship with God and one another, evidenced by violence and murder. Though some of us walk with God in God’s way (5:21,24; 6:8-9), most of us, like Cain, we turn away from the presence of the Lord (4:1-16; 6:11-12), and the continuously evil inclination of our hearts (6:5,12) makes us think that God must regret that God has created us. This is not true, but it is what we think. We project onto God our own despair with ourselves at our worst (6:6-7).

We think that God would want to wipe us out (6:7, 13); this is our sense of guilt talking. Instead God saves humanity and all the animals through the cataclysm of the Flood. God wants to cleanse the earth, for our sake, from all that is wrong. God show mercy to us, and we find “grace in the eyes of the Lord” (6:8 KJV). God rescues us from the Flood (7); and God “remembers” us (8:1; 9:15). God makes a covenant with us and even the animals to mercifully preserve us from destruction and to provide us with a dependable natural world (8:21-22). God, however, recognizes that we remain wayward and inclined to evil (8:21), as the tower of Babel story shows (11:1-9). Throughout Genesis 1-11 God shows love and concern for all creation, for all humanity, despite our wandering away like lost sheep.

Genesis 12-50
The benevolent character of God does not change with the Genesis story’s new focus on Abraham and his descendants (Gen. 12-50). When God calls Abraham, God promises that he will make Abraham’s name great, “so that you will be a blessing” (12:2) and that in him “all the families of the earth will be blessed” (12:3). Though God chooses to work God’s will purposes through a particular family, it is for the purpose of blessing all  the families of the earth. When Abraham trusted God’s promise to him, God “reckoned it to him as righteousness” (15:6). That is, God rewarded Abraham’s faith with the gift of a right relationship with God and made a covenant with him to fulfill his promises (15:18; 17:2, 4, 7). The nations that will come from Abraham will enjoy God’s covenant favor also. God will bless Isaac, Abraham’s son, and all his descendants, and ultimate all the nations of the earth.

God also dealt kindly with Hagar (Gen. 16) and blessed Ishmael, Abraham’s other son, not once but both times Sarah had them evicted (17:18-21; 21:8-21)! Even though God’s covenant is with Abraham and his descendants, the long-term purpose is always the blessing of the all the families of the earth.

Though God would destroy Sodom and Gomorrah for their wickedness, he remembered to show mercy (chemlah) to Abraham’s nephew, Lot, and his family by rescuing them from the evil men of Sodom (19:16, 29).

As Abraham again demonstrated his trust in the Lord by not refusing to sacrifice the son on whom all God’s promises depended (22:1-14), God renewed his blessing, promising Abraham abundant offspring by whom “shall all the nations of the earth gain blessing for themselves” (22:18). And God promised the same blessing of the nations to Isaac (26:4) and Jacob (27:29). At Bethel, God said to Jacob, “All the families of the earth shall be blessed in you and in your offspring” (28:14).

Isaac and Jacob
Abraham’s family recognizes the character of God as steadfast love (chesed) and faithfulness (emeth). Abraham’s unnamed servant, who walks with God (24:40) extols God’s steadfast love (chesed) and faithfulness (emeth) in the provision of a wife (Rebekah) for Isaac (24:27). God promises to be with Isaac and to bless him (26:24). Jacob meets God at Bethel, where God extends to him the same promises made to Abraham and Isaac, and further promises to be with Jacob. God also has mercy on and remembers Leah the unloved (29:31) and Rachel the favored (30:22). Later, Jacob, fearful of what may happen in his encounter with Esau, acknowledges that he is unworthy of all the chesed and emeth God has shown him in the past (32:10: 33:11).

God also shows his character in the stories of Jacob’s son, Joseph (Gen. 37-50). Though Joseph’s brothers sold him as a slave, the Lord was with him in Egypt and caused him to prosper (39:2-3). Though falsely accused of attempted rape and imprisoned, Joseph experienced the presence of the Lord and his “steadfast love” (39:21, 23). He tells Pharaoh about the sovereign God who reveals his certain plans for Egypt in time to prepare for a coming famine (Gen. 41). And he credits God with using the evil actions of his brothers to send him to Egypt in order “to preserve life” (45:5, 7, 8). “Even though you intended to do harm to me, God intended it for good, in order to preserve a numerous people, as he is doing today” (50:20). God tells Jacob not to be afraid to take his family to Egypt, for God will be with him there and make him a great nation (46:3-4). So Jacob, just before his death, blesses Joseph and his sons, passing on them the divine promise to become a great nation (48:15-16, 19; 49:25-26), a promise of God’s saving presence, that will one day be fulfilled for the family of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (50:24).

We have a pattern, then, established in the opening book of the Bible. God brings all things into being and is relatively in control of what happens in the world. People can act contrary to God’s will, and God’s judgment follows. But God cares for his creation, the world of people and animals. He acts to bless them, to help and guide them, to deliver them, even when they make wrong choices, and God enters into covenant with them to accomplish God’s purpose, to bless all the nations of the earth.

Along the way, we learn about God’s character. God is kind and just, merciful and gracious. People who know God say that he acts with steadfast love and faithfulness toward them, to preserve life and to care for them. God walks with people and is ever present to them.

Thursday, November 14, 2013

1 Corinthians 13 as if it were about God's love for us

A Paraphrase of 1 Corinthians 13 As If It Were about God’s Love for Us

1 The love of God is more important than the Bible, spiritual talk, and theology.

2 It is more important than planning, prophecy, meditation, and miracles.

3 It is even more important than social justice and humanitarian service. All these things may be good, but if there is no God who loves us and all people, then they are just so much human noise.

4 God’s love is patient, it is kind, and it is not jealous of our other loves (like our families, baseball, and chocolate). God isn’t worried about how important God is or whether he always gets the credit he deserves.

5 God is someone you’d like to have coffee with, and he doesn’t wear a watch. He isn’t always telling you his stories, but takes the time to listen to yours, and doesn’t interrupt, except maybe to laugh. And you can’t make him mad, even if you aren’t always nice to him or forget his birthday. He doesn’t hold a grudge or even remember your screw-ups.

6 God’s love is never happy when people mess up, but it always says, “Way to go!” when people do what’s right.

7 God’s love can carry great burdens but is never over-burdened. He has time for your tears and solace for your sins. God believes the best about you, and he made you and knows you like no one else. God’s love is the ground of all hope, and God’s love never gives up.

8 Ultimately, in the end of all things, God’s love will win, even if it takes extra innings. Many people and priorities come into our lives, and then they go. Good and bad happen to us, and we don’t know why.

9 There are all kinds of predictions about the future: some happen and some don’t.

10 It is enough that God loves us.

11 Now, we have adult questions and childish answers.

12 Now, we speak about love without understanding, but one day we will experience God’s love to the depth of our capacity to know it.

13 Now abides God’s mysterious power-in-weakness, his beautiful goodness, and his all-including love, these three; but the greatest of these is God's love, his love for all human beings, shown to us in Jesus, God's Son our Lord.

Friday, June 14, 2013


A few years ago the Coalition of Christian Colleges and Universities held a conference on Whidbey Island, Washington for its campus ministers. Part of the discussion centered around what kind of relationship the campus pastors would, ideally, like to have with the faculty and what they hoped for in their relationship with faculty. They developed the following wish-list.

Campus Ministers’ Twenty Wishes for Faculty:

That faculty would fully realize how much they influence students.

That someone would help prepare faculty for their spiritual formation role on campus.

That faculty would not see spiritual formation as the responsibility of campus ministry alone.

That faculty would have more confidence in their spiritual formation role with students.

That faculty would recognize their pastoral role and be more open to being coached in it.

That faculty had more time for mentoring students.

That faculty would seek to reach students at more than just an intellectual level.

That faculty would be more informed about where students are developmentally.

That more faculty would incorporate “mission” or “service” components into their courses.

That more faculty would talk about how their discipline relates to service in the world beyond graduation.

That faculty would take more time to reflect on their discipline theologically.

That faculty would be advocates for and examples of integrating faith and academics in the classroom.

That faculty would only hire colleagues who support the spiritual formation role of the Christian university.

That faculty would be intentional about their own spiritual formation and share some of their practice with students.

That faculty would give more positive feedback to campus ministry, not just negative.

That faculty would collaborate more on programs with campus ministry.

That faculty would have more “good faith” toward the co-curricular side of the university.

That faculty and campus ministers could show more mutual respect and understanding toward each other’s role on campus.

That faculty would support the role of worship in spiritual formation.

That faculty would support, attend, and appreciate chapel.

There was a prevailing sense that there is too much separation between the life of the mind (seen as the faculty’s role) and the life of the spirit (seen as campus ministry’s role). This division, though not absolute on any campus, has negative consequences, such as students choosing one as their primary focus and discounting or minimizing the other. Thus, an alumnus of a CCCU college told the campus minister, “I really don’t know what I believe anymore. When I was here, I just embraced the learning and left Christ out of it." [Of course, the opposite is also common: the Christian college becomes a four-year extension of Christian camps, concerts, and discipleship programs, with no serious engagement with the university’s academic and vocational (in the sense of finding one’s calling) mission.]

The late Dallas Willard describes what is supposed to happen in Christian higher education as “to bring students to the place at which they walk routinely and easily walk in the character and power of Jesus Christ.”[as quoted in Kenneth O. Gangel, “Education for Renovation,” Christian Education Journal 2:1 (Spring 2005), 154. While one might question whether anyone ever walks “routinely and easily” according to the character of and power of Jesus, the goal is still a laudable one. And clearly the alumnus cited above did not come anywhere close to it. She was able to graduate with almost no integration of her academic course work and her faith.

This is as much the responsibility of the faculty at a Christian university as it is the campus ministry staff. Given the immense influence faculty members have with students, they may in fact be the primary conveyors of the Christian worldview integration on campus. Yet it is evident that many do not take up this role with any seriousness. Faculty and campus pastors can work together in a common enterprise of spiritual formation and Christian worldview development.

Christian college faculty members in all departments and disciplines can equip themselves more adequately for their role by becoming familiar with basic works in theology and spiritual formation. At some Christian colleges first-year faculty have the opportunity to study and discuss aspects of basic Christianity, what the Bible teaches, and how to help student beyond the classroom. This provides a basis for teaching their disciplines from an more informed Christian perspective. Some schools also use the works of Parker Palmer on the importance of teaching.

Such an approach to faculty development should help create a sense of common mission with campus ministry staff, though recognizing their different emphases, venues, and practices. It is vitally important, especially on smaller campuses, for faculty and campus pastors to trust and respect one another, allowing for diversity of gifts, callings, and personalities.

From a faculty standpoint, there is also a wish-list for campus ministers.

Faculty wish:

That more campus ministers understood that the life of the mind can itself be spiritually formative.

That they knew that there are disciplines and virtues learned only through rigorous academic study and research.

That campus pastors realized that one’s faith may grow as much through wrestling with the questions, problems, and doubts that arise in the classroom as through singing “worship” songs in chapel.

That campus pastors took a more active role in underlining the importance of classroom work in the student’s formation.

That more campus pastors valued the life of the mind as a way of loving God.

That the teaching/preaching that occurs in chapel, especially by guest ministers, be more theologically and biblically credible.

That chapel speakers would refrain from disparaging academics.

That chapel times would appeal less to the experiential and emotional aspects of the student’s personality. That chapel programs would draw on a wider and more balanced range of Christian worship resources and actually teach worship.

That campus ministry staff sought active input from and cooperation with faculty members in programming for chapel and the residence halls.

Perhaps if there were less emphasis on “chapel” as the primary focus of spiritual formation, the relationship between faculty and campus ministers could be positively jump-started. The chapel experience, whether required or voluntary, preaching-oriented or music-centered, cannot carry the formational weight that it is often burdened with.

Finally, could Christian college and university presidents, provosts, and deans play a more active role in encouraging a new dialogue of their faculties with campus ministry staffs? It could well lead to a more mutually cooperative and supportive relationship that would properly position worldview shaping and spiritual formation as the shared responsibility of faculty and pastors on our campuses.

Thomas F. Johnson, Ph.D., Professor of Religious Studies (ret.), George Fox University

Wednesday, June 05, 2013

Tom's Journal of Our May 2013 Trip to Turkey

May 12-13 (Sunday-Monday). All travel. Michele and I picked up Dick and Arnelle Hall (friends from our church) and drove to their friends’ house on 200th St. in Des Moines, WA, near the airport. They are keeping our car for the two weeks. Alki’s (that’s the tour company) van picked us up there at 3:40 pm. We met Sandy and Gail who were also going on the tour. Turns out Sandy grew up in Detroit and is a Tiger fan. We arrived at SeaTac and met the rest of our group of 30, led by Tyson Verse. We had gone to Vietnam with him in November of 2011. We were about 30 minutes late leaving Seattle on KLM, about 7:00pm. It was a 9+ hour flight to Amsterdam. I got a little sleep, not much. There was a long 7-hour layover in Amsterdam. We decided not to go in for the day as some of the group did. We toured the airport, ate lunch, and slept in lounge chairs. The next flight was 3.5 hours to Istanbul. We got in after midnight and got to bed at 2:30 am local time on May 14th at the Avant Garde Hotel. (Don’t book it - it’s not close to anything you want to see.)

May 14 (Tuesday). We took the bus into Istanbul over the bridge on the Bosporus Strait. Our in-country tour guide is Huseyin and our driver is nicknamed Lucky. Both are ardent fans of the Fenebache futbol club. We first toured the former Roman Hippodrome area and then the Blue Mosque also called the Sultanahmet. It has spectacular tile work and domes inside. We took off our shoes and Michele wore a head scarf. Then we went to the almost 1000 years earlier (6th century) Hagia Sophia, the former Christian church built by the emperor Justinian. It was converted to a Mosque after the Muslim conquest in the 15th century, but now it is a museum, and they are restoring the Christian frescos underneath some of the tiling. We ate at a local restaurant in Istanbul, good food and too large portions. Then we were dropped off at the Grand Bazaar. We got Sam and Nathaniel Fenebache soccer shirts. During the Bazaar time we had tea with Bill and Carol Joy of Sacramento at a local street coffee shop. They are going on to Greece for a week after this. We went back to the hotel, rested, ate in the hotel (Turkish pizza and salad and beer), played cards and went to bed at 9:00 pm.

May 15 (Wednesday). We left early for the Gallipoli peninsula, a WWI battle site where the Turks defeated the Allies, including the British Commonwealth navy and ground forces. This battle made Ataturk’s reputation and led to his becoming the founder of modern Turkey. We walked in the Aegean Sea there and toured the memorial grounds and graves. I found the grave of Pvt. T. Johnson from Australia. We crossed on a ferry the Straits of the Dardanelles from Europe into Asia. Turkey bridges both continents. It was a warm sunny day for the 30-minute crossing. Michele tried to engage some Turkish school girls in conversation. They giggled. We checked into our hotel (the Akol) in Canakkele. I changed into shorts and a short-sleeve shirt. We went out with Mark and Lana for a beer and came back for dinner at 7:00. It was a great buffet. Then we went for a walk, saw the giant Trojan horse that was used in the movie “Troy,” rested, watched TV a bit, and went to bed about 10.

May 16 (Thursday). We woke up to the muezzin’s call from the minaret at 5:00 AM and got up at 5:30, showered and packed up. We went to breakfast at 6:45 - a Middle Eastern buffet. We left on the bus at 8:00 and traveled about 20 miles to the archeological site of ancient Troy, discovered by Schliemann in the 19th century. We toured the various levels (including the oldest “Homeric” level, c. 2500 BC), and our guide explained the history and what had happened here. Then we had a long drive toward Pergamon. We had lunch at a Turkish restaurant on the way. They had a small zoo there. We saw an ostrich and a Smurf. Then we toured Pergamum, the throne of Zeus. It was a major mountain fortress. We took a tram up to the top to see the ancient ruins. Our guide explained the history of this strategic fortress overlooking the valley. Anthony and Cleopatra were here. The ruins go back to Greek and Roman times. Then we drove to Kusadasi for the night. We stayed at the Grand Belish Hotel on the Aegean Sea. We walked along the waterfront and in the water. Dinner in the hotel and to bed at 10.

May 17 (Friday). After a good breakfast, we went to tour ancient Ephesus, the most spectacular Roman ruins in in the world. Turkey has more Roman ruins than Italy and more Greek ruins than Greece. Ephesus was amazing. It was like walking in the ancient city itself. We walked on the actual roads Paul walked on and sat in the huge amphitheater where Paul was hauled and for hours people chanted “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!” There were many original inscriptions on buildings and fall chunks of marble.

We went to a small village and ate at a local restaurant. I had a chicken kebab and Michele ate little pancakes with various fillings. We saw the woman making the pancakes. Then we went to the home of Mary in Ephesus; there is no way of verifying this legend, but it was an ancient Christian site, and there was a baptismal pool that had been excavated nearby. On the way back to the hotel, we stopped at a carpet factory and saw how genuine Turkish carpets are woven. There were some very beautiful carpets, but they were priced well beyond almost everyone’s budget. We got back to the hotel by 5:30 and walked on the beach after dinner. There was way too much trash. It was nice to have two nights at a hotel.

May 18 (Saturday). Our trip is half over. We had a 3.5 hour ride to Pamukkale to see this World Heritage Site. Spectacular limestone cliffs with hot springs running over them causing many different colors in the pools. We walked in the thermal pools. It felt very hot - it was near 85 degrees.We ate lunch there. In the afternoon we checked into the Lycus Valley Hotel. We changed into our bathing suits and went into the hot thermal pool and the slightly cooler one. Then we swam in the much cooler regular swimming pool. we had a beer with Mark and Lana. Then we took a local bus with Mark and Lana and Dick and Arnelle to the small village near Pamukkale and met and talked with locals and did some looking into the stalls and stores. We took the bus back to the hotel and ate a grand buffet there with live music. A beautiful setting as the sun went down and the stars came out. We slept fairly poorly. There were fire works at midnight because May 19th is a holiday commemorating the greatness of Ataturk, the father of the nation.

May 19 (Sunday). Affeydes sinEES = excuse me. Teshekewr ederim = thank you very much. On our bus ride to Antalya and Perge, we saw field after field of opium poppies. “For medical use only” our guide informed us without cracking a smile. For lunch we stopped at a restaurant specializing in cooking with mushrooms. Here are the people on our trip. We do not know last names of most of the people. They are not on name tags and some people do not want others to know their last names apparently. Dick and Arnelle Hall, Mark and Lana, Mark and Kathryn, Bill and Carol Joy, Bill and Molly Tomita,Gary and his sister Shannon, Sandy and Gail, Kathy from Taiwan, Meena from India, George a professor and Judi, Carolyn a former social worker, Donna, Kris, Lee, Denise, Becky, whose wallet we found and returned earning us each a beer, Jean, Mary, Maxine, older women who were real troopers, Sandee, and us. Tyson was our guide, Huseyin was our Turkish guide, and Lucky was the driver of our top quality bus. At Perge, we saw more amazing Greek and Roman ruins. Part of the acropolis there dates back to 4000 BC. These were the best ruins we’ve seen, except for the untoppable Ephesus. We then went to the high rise, five star Dedeman Hotel in Antalya, It is on the Mediterranean Sea. After dinner, we walked into town found an ATM, shopped at a local market, and then walked down 154 stairs to the dock where we out our feet into the sea. There was no beach. It was very warm overnight.

May 20 (Monday). We left on the bus for Konya in central Anatolia. Our first stop was at Aspendos where there is a theater that has been in continuous use and therefore preserved since several centuries BC. “The wide range of its coinage throughout the ancient world indicates that, in the 5th century BC, Aspendos had become the most important city in Pamphylia . . . . Alexander the Great marched into Aspendos in 333 B.C. after capturing Perge . . . . In 190 BC the city surrendered to the Romans who later pillaged it of its artistic treasures . . . . Aspendos is known for having the best-preserved theatre of antiquity. The theatre provided seating for 7,000 and was built during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180 AD). Ataturk restored this theater in the early 20th century and it is still used for opera and live theater productions. We then drove up into the Taurus mountains and stopped at a local market for lunch in Magarat. We ate outside on picnic tables. I had lamb; Michele ate trout. Some of the group went on a hike to explore the cave delaying our departure. We drove to Konya, a conservative city in central Turkey. We visited the grave of the 13th century Sufi poet Rumi (Mevlana) and the museum of the whirling dervishes, called Mevlana Museum. There is also a box containing hairs from the beard of the prophet Muhammad. we went to our nearby hotel the Rixos, the most modern hotel we stayed at during the trip. From our 18th story room we had wonderful views of the surrounding country side and distant mountains. dinner in the hotel. We slept well.

May 21 (Tuesday). We went back into Konya and visited a former 13th century madrassah Koran school. Ataturk closed these religious schools down almost a century ago now. There was beautiful tile work in the old school and a pleasant garden courtyard. We then drove a while until we came to the Agzikarahan Caravanserai in a town called Sultanhani. The caravanserai was a “truck stop” for carvans on the silk road crossing Turkey to and from the Far East. It was a fortress like building very expansive inside with its own little mosque on stilts. There was the best shop of the trip across the street. We proceeded to lunch at a real truck stop and included Turkish gelato, Mado brand. Some of the rest rooms at various places had pay toilets. You hand the attendant one Turkish lira about $.60. Some are free. We never had a bad restroom the entire trip. They are way cleaner than American restrooms. We headed on to the Cappadocia region of Turkey, where there is another World Heritage site or geological and historical importance. On the way we visited an underground city. It was like the Cu Chi Tunnels in Vietnam. Early Christians built these underground cities in the 3rd century to hide out from the Romans before Christianity was legal. We really enjoyed this day and drove on to the city of Nevshehir, where we are staying two nights. Our mediocre hotel was the Dingler. Hard beds! Good food though. We walked into town and saw what was there. Some of the guys got Turkish haircuts. Slept poorly on hard beds in a hot room.

May 22 (Wednesday). We got up at 5:00 and went to watch the sunrise. Most of our group went even earlier at 4:00 to do the balloon ride over Cappadocia. We were going to, but it cost $240 per person. We saw the balloons rising as the sun was also coming up. Got some pix. A beautiful sight. After breakfast we went to the Goreme area in the Monk’s Valley. It was a setting for one of the Star Wars movies. Something from another world. Limestone pillars with homes carved out inside them, where monks lived and worshiped and studied in the early centuries and the middle ages. The limestone pillars had mushroom-like caps of harder rock. They are called Fairy Chimneys by some, the rude Boys by others, given their phallic shapes. There was even a police station in one of them. The precise location was at Pasabagi. We walked into cave churches with preserved frescos and murals. Dick and I paid an extra 8 lira and toured the Dark Church with the best preserved paintings on the walls. On this trip almost every day has included stops at shops or bazaars where local and imported goods are sold. This was no exception. At two places on the journey there were camel rides offered, although our guide said the camels were brought from other countries. On our way to the next hotel we stopped at a pottery shop for a demonstration of the making of fine art pottery that sold for hundreds and thousands of dollars. We saw them making wine carafes that imitated ancient Hittite wine carafes. Red clay predominates. We crossed the Red River, the longest in Turkey. Back in town I was dropped off to get a Turkish haircut, an amazing process that includes a fire stick to burn off ear hair. Some of the group went to Turkish Night that featured various kinds of folk dancing. We were very tired and the extra cost was higher than we wanted to pay. We slept a little better.

May 23 (Thursday). Only two days left before we leave Turkey. This was a long driving day from Nevshehir to Ankara, the capitol of Turkey. We drove by the Salt Lake and ate lunch along the way at a truck stop place. By mid-afternoon we were in Ankara and visited the Museum of Anatolian Civilization. It contains an amazing array of archeological finds from ancient Hittite times through the medieval period. Quite a nice display of Greek and Roman era artifacts. We came through a military checkpoint and visited the Ataturk Mausoleum. It was massive with a huge courtyard and impressive buildings surrounding it, but inside there was almost nothing to see. On the the ultra-modern Movenpick Hotel in Ankara. We shopped at a five story mall next story and bought some snacks for the evening. After dinner we toured the hotel’s spa area and decided not to change into our suits and use it. We should have in hindsight; it would have been relaxing. Slept fairly well.

May 24 (Friday). It is Jason’s birthday. We have had internet occasionally, and sent him an email happy birthday. He is 43 today. We got up at 5:30, breakfast at 6:30 and on the bus by 7:30 for the long drive to Istanbul. We made two stops, one for lunch, on our way to Istanbul. Typically the bus stops for a break every 1.5-2 hours. We arrived at our destination, the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul after sitting for an hour in a massive traffic jam. The palace was the home of the former Sultans who ruled the Ottoman Empire for hundreds of years. We saw lots of jewels, bowls of emeralds and one of the largest diamonds in the world. More traffic and we got dropped off at the Spice Market, where we had hoped to find more gifts to bring home, but failed mostly. Got some Turkish delight. We had a special dinner at a Turkish restaurant. Carol Joy and Bill and Michele and I led the group in “O Lord, it’s hard to be humble” in honor of our tour guide, Huseyin. We also gave him a gift. We got to the Sheraton Istanbul too late to do anything but pack up for tomorrow’s very early departure to the airport and the flights home. Too bad too because it was the nicest hotel room of the trip!

May 25 (Saturday). Amy and Peter’s 17th Anniversary! We got up at 2:30am. Our bus left for the airport at 3:30. We gave a parting gift to our driver, Lucky. Check-in was a hassle with no one knowing quite what to do and some of the automatic check in machines not working, but eventually it all worked out, and we got to our gate with about 30 minutes to spare. We boarded at 5:30 for the 6:00am flight to Amsterdam. In Amsterdam it was a long walk to the next gate, and by the time we got there people were checking in for the 9.5 hour flight to Seattle. It went more quickly than usual, though neither of us got much sleep. We watched a couple of movies on board and they served a couple of meals. I read some and played games on the iPad. We got into Seattle about 11:15 and walked through passport control and customs without a problem. We got our luggage, went to Baggage Claim #1, said goodbye to our group members and Tyson Verse our Alki guide. We gave Tyson a gift too. Everyone gives both guides and the driver a monetary gift. We budgeted about $5 per day for each of them, so our gift was about $50-60 per person. We gave this as a couple, not from each of us. We walked over to Shuttle Express with a group and after a short wait got into our assigned shuttle and got delivered to Dick and Arnelle’s friends’ house in Des Moines. We drove home and almost got rear-ended in downtown Seattle on I-5 when the speeding traffic suddenly slowed and stopped. The guy behind me just missed us, but he got whacked. Felt bad for him. We caught the 3:30 ferry at Mukilteo and got home about 4:45 after dropping off the Halls. We figured we were awake about 28 hours before we got to bed. It has been a great trip. We learned a lot and came to appreciate the country of Turkey that we had not known much about before. Very nice memories.